FRANKFURT, Germany-Changes in the web of global technology exchanges in the past year centered mostly on activities in the Far East, particularly in China, where several deals came to light and many more are under negotiation. Heading the list for activity in the region was Goodyear, which set up joint ventures in India and China: South Asia Tyre Ltd. in Aurangabad, India, with Ceat Ltd.; and Goodyear-Dalian Tire in Dalian, China, with Dalian International.
Goodyear continues to look for further opportunities in China, even though the validity of the Dalian venture still is being contested by China Tire Holdings of Hong Kong.
Not far behind was Pirelli Group, which announced four new plant engineering deals in China and is negotiating a joint venture there as well. In addition, the company is negotiating at least four other tire and steel cord deals.
In China, Pirelli expects to initiate production this year at Shenyang (steel radial truck tires) and Changchun (original equipment radial passenger car tires). At Qingdao, where the year-old truck tire plant is being expanded to accommodate car tires, Pirelli also has secured an engineering contract for motorcycle and scooter tires.
Besides China, Pirelli has targeted India as ``extremely promising'' for turnkey engineering and technology licensing projects, according to information in the firm's 1993 annual report.
There Pirelli is engaged in talks with as-yet unidentified firms regarding new factories for radial tire production. Last year Pirelli said it was holding talks with Balasore-based Birla Tyres Ltd., a 3-year-old firm using Pirelli radial truck tire technology, about installing radial passenger car tire capacity.
Elsewhere, Pirelli is pursuing off-take production of bias-ply tires and inner tubes with manufacturers in South Korea and Taiwan as part of a plan to expand its Asian distribution network. In addition to these projects, Pirelli technology licensees in Indonesia (Orban Tyre) and Egypt (Alexandria Tyre Co. Ltd.) are scheduled to start production this year.
All told, revenue from industrial projects and licensing represents between 2 and 3 percent of Pirelli Tyre's total sales, or about $60 million to $90 million. The value of the firm's projects in China is about $150 million.
Continental also was active in Asia, establishing a steel truck radial engineering and development joint venture with its three existing partners in India-Apollo Tyres Ltd., JK Industries Ltd., and Modi Rubber Ltd. The R&D cooperation eventually may lead to the construction of a new plant for radial truck tires.
Additionally, Conti recently revealed it is discussing various means of cooperation with unnamed tire makers in Russia. Conti already has technology and off-take production links with firms in the former Comecon trading bloc, Sava-Semperit in Slovenia and Stomil-Olsztyn S.A. in Poland.
Of the other major makers:
Groupe Michelin provides technology with few exceptions only to joint venture partners, such as those in Japan and Thailand. The company said it is studying setting up an operation in China but declined to elaborate.
In India, where Michelin took a 10-percent share in MRF Ltd. in 1992, ``the collaboration...did not achieve the established objectives, (but) the interest in forming an industrial partnership in this country remains intact.''
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd. concentrates mostly on fostering further development of the Dunlop manufacturing network, working closely with companies in India, Malaysia and Taiwan and at an arm's length with Woosung Industries in South Korea through its Ohtsu Tire & Rubber Co. subsidiary.
Sumitomo and Avon Tyres Ltd. of the United Kingdom canceled their technology exchange at year's end 1993.
The following is an alphabetical listing of major tire makers and their respective technical partners worldwide. A pound sign (#) following a company's name indicates it is a majority-owned subsidiary of the main tire firm. An asterisk (*) indicates it is a minority-owned subsidiary while two asterisks (**) means it is a former subsidiary.
Avon Tyres Ltd. (United Kingdom)
Avon IEC Ltd., Jubayl, Saudi Arabia (joint venture with IEC and Saudi Azmi Corp.);
Delta Tyres, Islamabad, Pakistan;
Kelaniya Tyre, Kelaniya, Sri Lanka;
Silverstone Tire & Rubber Co., Taiping, Malaysia;
Vikrant Tyres Ltd., Mysore, India.
Barum (Czech Republic)
(Majority owned by Continental A.G.)
Tyre Corp. of India, Kankinara, India;
Petlas Rubber Industry and Trading Co., Ankara, Turkey.
Bridgestone Corp. (Japan)
Majority owned subsidiaries in Australia, Indonesia, Taiwan and Thailand;
Bridgestone/Firestone Inc., Nashville, Tenn. (wholly owned subsidiary);
Brisa (Bridgestone Sabanci Tire Manufacturing & Trading Co.), Izmit, Turkey (joint venture with Sabanci Holding).*
Bridgestone/Firestone Inc. (U.S.)
Industria Firestone de Costa Rica, S.A., San Jose, Costa Rica **;
Firestone East Africa Ltd., Nairobi, Kenya*;
Firestone S.A. Pty. Ltd., Port Elizabeth, South Africa**;
Neumaticos de Chile S.A. (NECSA), Coquimbo, Chile**;
Philtread Tire & Rubber Co., Manila, Philippines.*
BTR P.L.C. (United Kingdom) (via Dunlop International Technology Ltd.)
Bonsa Tyre Co. Ltd., Bonsaso, Ghana;
Chongqing Tyre Factory, Chongqing, China;
Dunlop India Ltd., Calcutta, India (aircraft tires only);
Dunlop Tyres Pty. Ltd., Durban, South Africa#;
Dunlop Nigerian Industries, Lagos, Nigeria#;
Dunlop Zambia Ltd., Ndola, Zambia#;
Dunlop Zimbabwe Ltd., Bulawayo, Zimbabwe#;
Liaoning Tyre, Chao Yang, China;
Petlas Rubber Industry & Trade Co., Ankara, Turkey (aircraft tires only);
Iraq State Enterprises, An Anjaf, Iraq (suspended per U.N. embargo).
BTR also participates in a worldwide exchange of technology with other Dunlop companies, including Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd.
Continental A.G. (Germany)
Apollo Tyres Ltd., Perambra, India;
Barum-Continental S.R.O., Otrokovice, Czech Republic#;
Continental Mabor Industria de Pneus S.A.#;
GenTyre Industries Ltd., Port Elizabeth, South Africa;
JK Industries Ltd., Kanroli, India;
Modi Rubber Ltd., Modipuram, India;
Sava Semperit, Sava, Slovenia*;
Stomil Olsztyn S.A., Olsztyn, Poland (farm tires only).
*Continental and its wholly owned subsidiaries-Continental Dack Norden A.B., General Tire, Uniroyal-Englebert Reifen GmbH and Semperit Reifen A.G.-also conduct joint R&D operations.
*Continental and General Tire also exchange technology with Toyo Tire & Rubber Co. Ltd. and Yokohama Rubber Co. Ltd. of Japan, and are partners with them in GTY Tire Co. in the U.S.
General Tire (U.S.)
Apollo Tyres Ltd., Perambra, India;
Compania Ecuatoriana del Caucho S.A., Cuenca, Ecuador*;
Coporacion Industrial Llantera, Mexico City, Mexico;
General Tire & Rubber Co. of Morocco, Casablanca, Morocco#;
General Tyre East Africa Ltd., Arusha, Tanzania*;
General Tyre & Rubber Co. of Pakistan Ltd., Landhi, Pakistan*;
JK Industries Ltd., Kanroli, India;
Mabor de Mozambique, Maputo, Mozcambique.*
General Tire also exchanges technology with parent Continental A.G. and Japanese firms Toyo Tire & Rubber Co. Ltd. and Yokohama Rubber Co. Ltd.; together these firms co-own GTY Tire.
Ceat Tyres on India Ltd., Bombay, India;
Goodyear-Dalian, China (joint venture with Dalian International);
Nippon Giant Tire Co., Tatsuno, Japan (joint venture with Toyo Tire & Rubber Co. Ltd.);
Puma Trading S.A., Montevideo, Uruguay;
South Asia Tyre Ltd., Aurangabad, India (joint venture with Ceat Ltd.);
South Pacific Tyre Co. Ltd., Melbourne, Australia (joint venture with Pacific Dunlop Ltd.);
Tycon Pty Ltd., Uitenhage, South Africa**.
Goodyear and its wholly owned subsidiaries-Gummiwerke Fulda GmbH and Kelly-Springfield Tire Co.-also conduct joint R&D operations.
Inoue Rubber Co. (Japan)
(two-wheeler tires only)
Anlas Anadolu Lastik Sanayi ve Ticaret A.S., Istanbul, Turkey;
Associated Rubber Industries Ltd., Colombo, Sri Lanka*;
Fung Keong Rubber Manufacturing, Kelang, Malaysia;
Kenda Rubber Industries, Yuanlin, Taiwan;
Korea Inoue Kasei, Masan, South Korea;
Inoue Rubber (Thailand) Co. Ltd.*;
P.T. Gadjah Tunggal, Jakarta, Indonesia;
Iranian Ministry of Industry, Tehran, Iran
Groupe Michelin (France)
S. Kumar & Co., India, (motorcycle tires only);
MRF Ltd., Madras, India*;
Michelin Okamoto Tyres Corp., Gumma, Japan (joint venture with Okamoto Industries Inc.);
Michelin Siam Co., Laem Chabang, Thailand (joint venture with Siam Cement Co.);
Michelin Sime Aircraft Tyre Co. Bhd., Selangor, Malaysia (joint venture with DMIB Bhd. and Michelin Aircraft Tire Corp.);
Siam Tire Co. Ltd., Bangkok, Thailand*;
Michelin and its wholly owned subsidiaries-Pneumatiques Kluber S.A. and Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Co.-also conduct joint R&D operations.
Ohtsu Tire & Rubber Co. (Japan)
Woosung Industries Ltd., Pusan, South Korea;
Ohtsu also participates in R&D operations with its parent company, Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd.
Pirelli Tyre Holding N.V.(Netherlands/Italy)
Alexandria Tyre Co., Alexandria, Egypt*;
Anhui Tyre, Hofei Province, China;
Birla Industries Ltd., Balasore, India;
Beijing No. 4, Beijing, China (joint venture being negotiated);
Chang Chun, Chang Chun, China;
China National Machinery, China;
Haikou Rubber, Hannan Province, China;
Hualin Tyre, Heilongjian Province, China;
Nizhnekamskshina Tire Co., Nizhekamsk, Russia;
Orban Tyre Co., Chikarang, Indonesia;
Pars Tyre, Savah, Iran*;
Qingdao No. 2 Rubber Co., Qingdao, Shandong Province, China;
Societe Tunisienne de l'Industrie du Pneumatique, Sousse, Tunisia*;
Pirelli and its wholly owned subsidiaries-Metzeler Reifen GmbH and Pirelli Armstrong Tire Corp.-also conduct joint R&D.
Sime Darby Bhd. (Malaysia)
DMIB Bhd., Selangor, Malaysia#;
Sime Darby Pilipinas Inc., Manila, Philippines*;
Sime Tyres International Sdn. Bhd., Selangor, Malaysia.#
Sumitomo Rubber Industries Ltd. (Japan)
Caribbean Tyre Co. Ltd., Point Fortin, Trinidad;
DMIB Bhd., Selangor, Malaysia;
Dunlop India Ltd., Calcutta;
Dunlop Ltd. (BTR), Birmingham, England;
Federal Corp., Taipei, Taiwan*;
Hwa Fong Rubber Industrial Co. Ltd., Yuanlin, Taiwan;
Nokia Tyres Ltd., Nokia, Finland*;
Ohtsu Tire & Rubber Co. Ltd., Izumi-Ohtsu, Japan*;
Sime Darby Bhd., Selangor, Malaysia.
Sumitomo and its wholly owned subsidiaries-Dunlop France S.A., Dunlop Tire Corp., SP Reifenwerke A.G. and SP Tyres U.K. Ltd.-also conduct joint R&D operations. Minority-owned Ohtsu Tire also participates in this R&D cooperative.
Toyo Tire & Rubber Co. Ltd. (Japan)
Cheng Shin Rubber Industry Ltd., Tapei, Taiwan.
Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Co. (U.S.)
(Group Michelin subsidiary)
P.T. Intirub, Jakarta, Indonesia;
Lima Caucho S.A., Lima, Peru**;
Tigar-Pirot, Pirot, Yugoslavia (suspended due to U.N. embargo)
Uniroyal Goodrich also participates in joint R&D activities with its parent Michelin.
Yokohama Rubber Co. Ltd. (Japan)
Addis Tyre Co. S.C., Addis Ababa, Ethiopia;
Ceat Tyres of India Ltd., Bombay, India;
Hankook Tire Manufacturing Co. Ltd., Yong Dungpo, South Korea*;
Nankang Rubber Tire Corp., Taipei, Taiwan*;
P.T. Gadjah Tunggal, Jakarta, Indonesia.